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Jan 11, 2011

African Cichlids

Cichlids (pronounced / sɪklɨd /) is the fish of the cichlid family in the order Perciformes. Cichlids are members of a group known as Labroidei together with rivets fish Labridae, Pomacentridae betok, and surfperches Embiotocidae this family both large and diverse.
At least 1300 species have been described scientifically, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. The new species discovered every year, and many species are still undescribed. The actual number of species because it is not known, with estimates varying between 1,300 and 3,000.

Cichlids are a family of non-Ostariophysan most species-rich freshwaters throughout the world. They are the most diverse in Africa and South America. It is estimated that Africa alone has at least 1600 species. Central America offers about 120 species, as far north as the Rio Grande in southern Texas. Madagascar has its own unique species, but by far relate to them in mainland Africa. Spread Cichlids mostly in Asia, except for four species in the Jordan Valley in the Middle East, one in Iran, and three in India and Sri Lanka. There are three species found in Cuba and Hispaniola. Europe, Australia, Antarctica, North America and north of the Rio Grande drainage, Cichlids do not have the original, although in Florida, Mexico, Japan and northern Australia, the wild populations of Cichlids have become established as exotics.

Cichlids less commonly found in brackish and saltwater habitats, although many species tolerate brackish water for extended time; Cichlasoma urophthalmus, for example, just at home in freshwater swamps and mangrove swamps, and live and breed in salt water environments such as the mangrove belts around barrier islands Several species of Tilapia, Sarotherodon, and Oreochromis are. euryhaline and can spread along the brackish coastlines between rivers. Only a few Cichlids, however, mainly inhabit brackish or salt water, especially maculatus Etroplus, Etroplus suratensis, and Sarotherodon melanotheron.

Cichlids are still not yet reached the ocean and the island has dominated Gondwanan distribution, show exactly the relationship predicted by the vicariance brother:. Africa-South America and India-Madagascar hypothesis distribution, by contrast, requires Cichlids freshwater to have negotiated thousands of miles of open sea between India and Madagascar with no occupation or any other island, in this case, across the Mozambique Channel to Africa. Malagasy Cichlids exposure to salt water is 100% fatal after 12 hours.


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